Ceramics consist of fired clay with various added or naturally present additional components. In works of art and in craft objects ceramics were for example used for figurines and dishes but also in architectural elements such as bricks, tiles and glazed ornaments. Scientific studies usually focus on materials characterisation and manufacturing techniques.

For authentication thermoluminescence analysis can be used. The technique requires a small sample taken in a hidden area of the object. The result is usually not a precise date but it allows to differentiate between and old object and a modern forgery.